3.2 LEAN AREAS
where the epoxy/glass matrix is incomplete because of inadequate wetting
of the cloth with epoxy (lean areas) are speckled whitish in appearance.
The fully wetted laminate will have a consistant transparent greenish appearÂ¬ance.
Epoxy lean areas are acceptable, as long as the white speckled area is
less than 10% of the surface area. White to green ratios greater than 10%
require rejection or repair as shown in paragraph 4.
3.3 RICH AREAS.
Resin richness primarily adds weight to the laminate. While some degradation of physical properties does occur, a overly wet (rich)
layup is not grounds for rejection.
Bristle paint brushes are used throughout the layup process. As a brush begins to deteriorate it will shed some bristles into the
laminate. The bristle inclusions, up to 20 bristles per square foot, are not cause for rejection. Occasional inclusion of small woodÂ¬chips or other small foreign objects is not
grounds for rejection.
3.5 FIBER DISRUPTION
In all instances, it is good practice to have the glass fibers lying flat and without wrinkles. Major wrinkles or bumps along more than 2 inches of chord are cause for rejection in the wings, canard, and vertical fin, particÂ¬ularly on the upper surfaces (compression
side). Disruptions greater than 2 inches require repairs per paragraph 4.
3.6 FINISHING DAMAGE
Damage to the external structure by sanding
in preparation for surface fill and paint can occur. Occasional sanding through
the weave of the first skin ply is not grounds for rejection. Sanding through
areas greater than 2 inches in diameter completely through the
first ply or any damage to interior plies must be repaired in accordance with
paragraph 4. A damp rag passed over the sanded surface will make the plies show
up to determine how many plies have been sanded away.
3.7 SERVICE DAMAGE
Damage to the glass structure will be evidenced by cracked paint, or "brooming" of
glass fibers. Both of these indicators are clearly visible. If either type of
indication is present, the paint and filler should be sanded away, bare laminate
inspected, and repairs made per paragraph 4 as required. Where surface damage
has occured it is also likely that
crushing has been inflicted.
Delamination of glass/epoxy lap joints is eviÂ¬denced by physical separation of plies. These defects are easily visible and easily repaired. The leading and trailing edges of flying surÂ¬faces (wing, canard, vertical fin) should be
free of delamination.
3.9 MULTIPLE DEFECTS
Where multiple types of small defects occur
in a laminate (voids, fiber dislocations, and
lean areas for example), they should not
exceed a total of 10% of the surface area of
the laminate, or 20% of the wing chord at any
one spanwise position.
There are seldom single defects so massive that a major component must be scrapped. The repair procedures described here may be applied throughout the QUICKIE and Q2 composite
4.1 SMALL VOID REPAIRS
Voids up to 2 inches in diameter may be repaired by drilling a small hole into
the void and injecting the void full of epoxy. A vent hole opposite the injection
point is required to
allow air to excape.
4.2 LARGE DEFECTS
Excessively large voids, lean areas, finishing damage, fiber disruptions, major fiber wrinkles, or service damage may be repaired using this procedure. Remove the rejected or damaged
area by sanding or grinding the taper the glass laminate on a slope of approximately 1 inch per ply in all directions. The plies are visible as the sanding is done. The tapered glass edges and surrounding two inches of glass surface must be sanded completely dull. Damaged
underlying foam should be removed and the void filled with a dry microsphere/epoxy mixture or a replacement foam piece. The damaged area is then laminated over using the same type and
orientation of glass plies removed, each ply lapping onto the undamaged glass at least one inch. The whole repair area is covered with an additional bi-directional glass ply.
A delaminated joint should be spread_ the mating surfaces sanded dull, gap filled with flox (epoxy/flocked cotton mixture)_ then clamped shut while it cures.
Since a wide range of similar appearing materials exists which exhibit substantial
differences in physical (structural) properties, Quickie Aircraft Corporation
has established a distribution system to provide
the amateur builder with proven acceptable materials. Quickie Aircraft Corporation
strongly discourages the substitution of materials. Homebuilder substitutions
for the basic structural materials constitutes major structural modification
to the Q2 design, and could adversely effect flight safety.
These acceptance criteria are different from and, in some cases, much looser than for similar structures found in sailplanes and other contemporary composite structures.
These criteria apply only to the QUICKIE and Q2 structutes. Design safety factors in excess of three enable somewhat relaxed acceptability criteria compared to other similar structures.